The answer key below is designed to be used with the four printable worksheets in the Drugs + Your Body: It Isn’t Pretty poster/teaching guide, created to provide students with scientific facts and engage them in critical thinking about how drugs can affect the body, the brain, and society.
Answers may vary, but should include content along the following lines:
1) The brain directly or indirectly controls not just thoughts, feelings, and actions, but also the function of virtually all body organs and systems. It also monitors a person’s current environment (both external and internal) to help them survive. If respiration needs to be slowed, the brain sends messages through the peripheral nervous system to the lungs, causing the lungs to slow down.
2) When I’m scared, or when I run fast, my heart beats faster. Drugs that can cause the same reaction in a person include cocaine, methamphetamine, and prescription stimulants (at high doses or taken inappropriately, such as snorting).
3) A physical activity such as working out includes both voluntary and involuntary responses. A person voluntarily moves his or her body, which creates involuntary responses from the lungs (breathing harder) and the heart (beating faster).
Evaluation: Do students understand the difference between voluntary responses like walking, and involuntary responses like breathing? Do they understand that normal organ functions are part of the involuntary system that can be disrupted and/or damaged by drugs of abuse?
1) Endocrine system: feminization/masculinization; bones: stunted growth; skin: acne breakouts.
2) Tobacco contains many chemicals (carcinogens) that can lead to cancer.
3) Meth and tobacco. Both cause brown or lost teeth, gum disease, bad breath. Long-term exposure to the cancer-causing chemicals in smokeless tobacco can cause oral cancer.
4) Alcohol impairs the liver’s ability to remove toxins from the body, which causes a buildup of waste and fat, damaging the liver. Tobacco smoke also impairs the ability of the lungs to clean out toxins. Buildup of wastes in the liver or the lungs can lead to life-threatening diseases.
Evaluation: Did students understand the material and were they able to apply the facts presented to their conclusions? Were they able to compare drug effects to come up with logical conclusions about similarities?
Answers will vary, but possible outcomes include: incarceration; accidents that cause fatalities or serious injuries; and loss of job, driving privileges, or opportunities for college/career.
Fill-in-the-blank question answers will also vary. Outcomes for underage drinking include injuries, academic failure, alcohol poisoning, and heightened risk for other drug use and addiction.
Evaluation: Did students make a clear connection between decisions and consequences? Did they understand that one choice could affect them and those around them for the rest of their lives?
2) marijuana, prescription pain relievers, combinations of alcohol and drugs, heroin, ecstasy;
3) alcohol and cocaine;
4) marijuana and prescription pain relievers;
Looking at the Big Picture:
Answers may include:
1) overdose; drug-related accidents; drug-related suicide attempts; accidental ingestion; adverse reactions.
2) increased costs to hospitals and emergency services that lead to increases in insurance premiums and taxes, which costs everyone, not just the injured person; death of innocent bystanders involved in accidents; destruction of property; delays in care for other injured or sick patients.
Evaluation: Did students make the connection between increased emergency room visits and increased costs to society?